學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 U 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter U

誤解的字彙 U 為開頭的字彙

umbrella 及 parasol
umbrella (uhm BREL uh) (noun)
1. A device that is used for protection from the rain and sun consisting of a circle of fabric attached to a folding frame that is connected to a central pole or handle: “It is best to take an umbrella when you go out in the rain."
2. A group or organization that includes many smaller groups: “Several stores spread throughout the country are part of this umbrella corporation."
3. Something that includes several or many different things: “This umbrella policy that I have includes liability insurance, car insurance, and household insurance."
parasol (PAR uh sawhl", PAR uh sahl") (noun)
A light umbrella which can be used to protect oneself from the sun: “My mother gave me her parasol when I went on the summer picnic."
unexceptionable 及 unexceptional
unexceptionable (uhn" ik SEP shuh nuh buhl) (adjective)
Not likely to cause an objection or offense, but it is usually used to describe something that is good but not outstanding or excellent: “The work she did for the company was unexceptionable; however, she was able to keep her position because she was dependable and always showed up for work on time."
unexceptional (uhn" ik SEP shuh nuhl) (adjective)
Usually not good, interesting, etc.: “As an actress she was unexceptional, but as a singer, she had an exceptional voice."
uninhabited 及 uninhibited
uninhabited (uhn" in HAB i tid) (adjective)
Not lived in by people: “Too often there were those who broke into the uninhabited house down the street until it was torn down and replaced with a new restaurant."
uninhibited (uhn" in HIB i tid) (adjective)
Able to express thoughts and feelings freely: “He is often the center of attention because he is so very uninhibited while talking quite openly about his feelings."
unit 及 unite
unit (YOO nit) (noun)
1. A single thing, person, or group that is a part of something larger: “The basic unit of our society is the family."
2. A part of a hospital where a particular type of care is provided: “My father was put into the intensive care unit after having that bad accident."
3. A particular amount of length, time, money, etc., which is used as a standard for counting or measuring: “The Euro is the principal unit of Euopean currency."
unite (yoo NIGHT) (verb)
1. To join together to do or to achieve something: “The majority of students decided to unite to protest the increase of tuition for the upcoming semester."
2. To cause (two or more people or things) to be joined together and become one thing: “The couple wanted to unite in marriage last spring but couldn’t because of the terrible car accident."
university 及 college
university (yoo" nuh VUR si tee) (noun)
An educational institution that offers courses leading to a degree: such as, a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree and where research is done: “He completed his degree in law at the University of California."
college (KAHL ij) (noun)
1. An educational place in the United States where a person may go after high school and which offers courses leading to a degree; such as, a bachelor’s degree or an associate’s degree: “He decided first to go to a college to get his bachelor’s degree and then to do research for his doctoral degree at the university."
2. A school that offers advanced training in a specified subject: “She was so talented in art that she decided to go to an arts college."
urban 及 urbane
urban (UHR buhn) (adjective)
Of or relating to cities and the people who live in them: “As an architect she was involved in the development of the urban housing projects in the city."
urbane (uhr BAYN) (adjective)
1. Polite and confident; courteous and refined, as opposed to crude or coarse: “A diplomat must be urbane in order to do his job successfully."
2. Fashionable and somewhat formal: “During our vacation, we really enjoyed the urbane sophistication of the people we met."
usable 及 useful
usable (YOO zuh buhl) (adjective)
Capable of being used or in good enough condition to be used: “The antique coffee grinder was still quite usable and we utilized it to grind our coffee each morning for breakfast."
useful (YOOS fuhl) (adjective)
Helping to do or to achieve something: “It is quite useful to type texts on the computer because, for one thing, correcting mistakes is much easier."

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學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 T 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter T

誤解的字彙 T 為開頭的字彙

table (TAY buhl) (noun)
A certain kind of furniture: “We usually eat breakfast at our kitchen table."
table (TAY buhl) (noun)
An arrangement of words or numbers: “The table, or chart, shows you the grades of each of the students."
table (TAY buhl) (noun)
A plateau or a tableland which is a broad, level, elevated region, usually treeless: “While traveling in the desert we came upon a table of land and were able to see scenic views of the valley down beyond the edge of this flat area."
table (TAY buhl) (verb)
To postpone or to delay something: “The staff decided to table the topic until next Thursday afternoon."
tablet 及 tablet computer
tablet (TAB let) (noun)
A portable writing pad, typically paper: “Trina used a tablet and pencil to take notes while in class."
tablet (TAB let) (noun)
A small, flat form of compressed medicine, a vitamin, etc.: “Did you take your vitamin C tablet as well as the other tablets this morning, Monroe?"
tablet computer (TAB let kuhm PYOO tuhr) (noun)
In general, a tablet computer, or tablet laptop, is a wireless personal computer that allows a user to take notes using natural handwriting with a stylus or digital pen on a touch screen: “A tablet computer is similar in size and thickness to a yellow paper notepad and is intended to function as the user’s primary personal computer as well as a note-taking device."
“Someone has written that a tablet computer, or tablet laptop, is fast and runs many programs at the same time without lagging and freezing."
tack 及 tact
tack (TAK) (noun)
A small sharp nail usually with a wide, flat head: “The teacher used a tack to hang up the notice on the bulletin board."
tact (TAKT) (noun)
1. The ability to do or to say things without offending or upsetting other people: “The success of the international conference depends a great deal on the tact of the political leaders who will be trying to solve some of the economic problems that are on the table for the meeting."
2. The skills to appreciate the delicacy of a situation and to do or to say the kindest or most fitting things; diplomacy: “The boy’s father used tact in dealing with their tragedy."
tail 及 tale
tail (TAYL) (noun)
The lower, inferior, or rear end of something: “The cat loved to chase her tail around in circles."
“The tail of the car was damaged in the accident."
“He was at the tail end of the line waiting to buy tickets for the film."
“The tail of the airplane was broken off when the pilot had to make an emergency landing after running out of gas."
tail (TAYL) (verb)
1. To follow or to keep watching a suspect: “The detective had to tail the suspect for three hours."
“My silly cat tried to tail me when I left home for a walk, but she soon got tired and went back to the house."
2. To become more faint or scattered: “Her voice started to tail off after she had been reading out loud for several minutes."
tale (TAYL) (noun)
1. A story either based on fact or fiction that is told in printed or oral form: “The man told his tale of the huge fish which he caught but that got away."
2. An imaginative telling of an event: “A myth is often a tale used to explain puzzling events or circumstances."
3. Gossip or stories that can be libellous: “The tale that was told about the couple’s elopement was scandalous and was later proven not to be true."
tame (TAYM) (adjective)
1. Not wild; domesticated or submissive: “My cat is tame and loves to play with me and never uses her talons to scratch me."
2. Insipid, lacking spirit or zest: “We were disappointed because we thought the sports event was merely a tame game."
tame (TAYM) (verb)
1. To control or to bring into a domestic and submissive state: “The zoo keeper would like to tame the wild elephant, but so far he can only admire it from a distance."
2. To soften or to tone down: “He struggled to tame his temper while talking with his supervisor at work."
tap (TAP) (verb)
To strike with light blows: “They could hear the rain tap on the metal roof."
tap (TAP) (noun)
A water faucet: “She forgot to turn off the tap in the kitchen and the sink overflowed and flooded the floor."
tap (TAP) (noun)
A piece that makes a heel or sole of a shoe thicker: “He had a metal tap put on each of his shoes so he could pretend that he was a tap dancer."

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學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 S 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter S

誤解的字彙 S 為開頭的字彙

sacred 及 sacrosanct
sacred (SAY krid) (adjective)
1. Holy, something that is considered worthy of veneration: “The sacred books were kept in a fireproof box."
2. Important, devoted exclusively to one undertaking: “Melissa believed that it was her sacred duty to care for children who lived in slums and had no families."
sacrosanct (SAK roh sangkt") (adjective)
That which is considered very holy or too important and respected to be changed, criticized, etc.: “The traditions of the ceremonies are considered sacrosanct."
“Heather’s grandmother believed that the order of the religious ceremonies was sacrosanct."
“Terry and Diane were told that the government’s most sacrosanct institutions must be respected."
sacrilege 及 sacrilegious
sacrilege (SAK ruh lij) (noun)
An outrageous violation of or act of irreverence towards something considered holy: “Whistling in church is definitely considered a sacrilege."
sacrilegious (sak" ruh LIJ uhs, sak" ruh LEE juhs) (adjective)
A description of an act or behavior that is considered a violation of something considered holy and worthy of veneration: “The graffiti on the walls surrounding the cemetery were considered sacrilegious given the holiness of the site to many of those whose ancestors were buried there."
sage (SAYJ) (noun)
A plant (salvia officinalis), the leaves of which are used in cooking and baking: “When making a special bread, Jessica’s mother always included ground sage which smelled wonderful when baking."
sage (SAYJ) (noun)
An individual who is considered to be wise by virtue of experience and age: “Heather, Alice, and Doris consulted the village sage before they started to climb up the mountain."
sage (SAYJ) (adjective)
Characterized by wisdom and good judgment: “Martha’s mother gave her some sage advice before she went to the university."
sail 及 sale
sail (SAYL) (noun)
Fabric that is hung in a particular fashion on a ship or boat and which catches the wind to make a ship or boat move in a forward direction: “The captain gave the order to hoist the sail and the sailors cheered because their adventurous travels were beginning."
sail (SAYL) (verb)
1. To move in a boat that is propelled by wind: “Anthony and David were planning to sail around the world in a schooner."
2. To move or to proceed without resistance: “The mayor expects the new tax bill to sail through the city council without opposition."
sale (SAYL) (noun)
1. The transfer of ownership of something from one person to another one for a specified price: “Deborah and James completed the sale of the farm and cattle on the weekend."
2. The selling of items that are offered at bargain prices: “Christine went to the store that was having a sale of kitchen appliances."
3. A public event at which things are sold: “The museum is having a sale of fine antiques next week."
sanguine, sanguinary 及 sanguineous
sanguine (SANG gwin) (adjective)
1. Having the character traits of cheerfulness: “Darrell had a sanguine personality and got along with everyone at school."
2. Having a ruddy complexion: “After a day hiking in the mountains, Jon had a fresh and sanguine complexion."
sanguinary (SANG gwuh ner" ee) (adjective)
Bloody, associated with bloodshed: “There are just too many sanguinary wars that have taken place throughout history."
sanguineous (sang GWIN ee uhs) (adjective)
1. Relating to or involving blood or bloodshed: “The medical surgery was more sanguineous than the doctors expected."
2. Having the color of blood; blood-red: “Tommy’s new sanguineous shoes were hard to keep clean."

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學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 R 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter R

誤解的字彙 R 為開頭的字彙

race (RAYS) (noun)
1. A current of water flowing through a narrow channel, often in an industrial context: “The mill race was created by damming the river and diverting the flow of the water."
2. A contest of speed based on a set course and specific time frame: “The cross country race was set to begin this afternoon and the runners would pass through both flat land and hills before returning to the starting gate."
3. A rivalry or contest between two or more groups with the goal of winning something; such as, a pennant: “The two colleges participated in an annual race for the pennant and the prize money."
4. A track or groove through which something slides or rolls: “The ball bearings rolled down the race and into the gear box for the car."
race (RAYS) (verb)
1. To run or participate in a competition based on speed and timing: “The team decided to race in spite of the mist and cold weather."
2. To move at maximum speed: “Jillian’s cousin will race his car around the track in hopes of breaking the speed record."
race (RAYS) (noun)
1. A family or group of people united by common characteristics or interests: “The Nordic race has a history of bravery and seafaring explorations."
2. A grouping of people sharing traits that are passed on through generations and whose traits have become distinctive to that group: “Typically the Aboriginal race in North America has darker hair than Europeans."
rack 及 wrack
rack (RAK) (noun)
1. High clouds that are blown about by the wind: “Sean could see the rack of clouds moving across the sky."
2. An instrument or tool designed for torture so as to cause extreme pain: “The museum had an example of a rack that was used for torture during the Middle Ages."
3. The manger for holding food for livestock: “The rack was filled with fresh hay for the cattle."
4. A net or framework to be placed in a river to catch fish or floating matter: “The forester installed the rack in the polluted stream in hopes of gathering up the flotsam that was floating in the river."
5. Antlers, typically in sets of two, from such animals as moose: “There was a fine rack of antlers displayed in the museum of wild life from the park."
wrack (RAK) (noun)
1. Violent destruction of something: “The storm is so violent tonight that Alisha fear it will cause the wrack of the quay in the harbor."
2. Seaweed or kelp: “Karl watched the people of the seaside village harvest wrack and sell it as a crop."
“Once Maribel had some wrack pie, an experience she never wants to repeat."
wrack (RAK) (verb)
To ruin or to destroy completely: “The loss of his livestock will wrack the farmer and he may have to sell his farm."
racket 及 racquet
racket (RAK it) (noun)
1. A clattering noise or excitement: “Luis could hear quite a racket in the hall and wondered what was going on."
2. An illegal scheme or enterprise involving fraud: “Patricia was a member of a criminal racket."
3. Light weight sports equipment consisting of a handle at one end and a net of thread or gut in an oval shape at the other end which is typically used to bat a tennis ball or a badminton shuttlecock back and forth with an opponent: “Antonio uses an aluminum racket which has helped to improve his tennis game considerably."
racket (RAK it) (verb)
1. To celebrate in a loud, boisterous manner: “After the game Earl and Jim plan to racket down the street to the pub."
2. To hit a ball or shuttlecock back and forth between players: “Tamika and her sister racket a tennis ball every day for an hour."
racquet (RAK it) (noun)
An alternative spelling for racket usually occurring in the plural to refer to a game involving two to four players; including, a racket (racquet), a ball, and played within a walled court: “Victor grabbed his racquet and dashed to the tennis courts to play for an hour with his brother."
rail (RAYL) (noun)
1. Any of a number of wading birds (Rallidae) similar to cranes but typically smaller with short round wings and long toes for running in the mud of the swamps where they live: “Latasha went on a bird expedition and saw a rare rail in the swamp."
2. The fencing for a racetrack: “The crowd pressed against the rail during the excitement of the race."
3. A pole extending between two posts and whose function is to create a barrier: “The new rail at the gate was painted bright red."
rail (RAYL) (noun)
1. One of the bars of steel that form a train’s track: “The workers found a cracked rail on the intercity train’s track today."
2. A system of traveling by train: “Walter has to travel back and forth from his town to the city by rail every working day."
rail (RAYL) (verb)
1. To complain angrily about something: “The old man felt he had to rail at the doctor because as a patient he waited two hours and was still unable see anyone for a medical examination."
2. To use harsh or abusive language: “Trisha could hear the actress rail against the director even though she was not in the room."
3. To install fencing: “The project of the day was to rail the corral for the horses that were being delivered next week."
rain, reign 及 rein
rain (RAYN) (verb)
To give in an abundant manner: “During the holidays, Josie’s relatives tend to rain presents on her because she is the only child."
rain (RAYN) (noun)
Drops of water formed by the condensation of vapor and which falls from the atmosphere: “As Ryan stood by the window, he watched the rain begin to fall on the lawn."
“It started to rain before Tracy could put up her umbrella."
reign (RAYN) (noun)
1. The time during which an individual who is considered royalty holds political influence or control: “The reign of the king lasted over forty years and was believed to be a peaceful time in the country."
2. A prevalent or common occurrence: “At the end of the school year, the reign of confusion was wide spread as the students cleaned their lockers and said goodbye to their friends and teachers."
reign (RAYN) (verb)
To possess a position of presumed authority, often without much actual political influence or power: “Ronda will reign as consort until her son is old enough to be the king."
rein (RAYN) (noun)
1. A controlling or restraining influence: “Albert kept a tight rein on the finances of the town so there would be no wasteful spending."
2. Unhampered opportunity: “Delories was given free rein in planning the party for the end of the year."
3. The strap which is fastened to the bit in an animal’s mouth and by which the animal is controlled or directed: “Sallie held each rein for her horse in her right hand as she mounted it."
rein (RAYN) (verb)
To stop or to slow oneself or an animal: “Pete had to rein in his enthusiasm for the new book because he was about to bore all his friends."
raise, rays 及 raze
raise (RAYZ) (verb)
1. To lift something or someone to a higher position: “A small box to stand on will raise the speaker so she can speak comfortably into the microphone."
2. To elevate in terms of status or position: “The promotion will raise Pete’s colleague to a managerial position at the factory."
3. To enhance or to invigorate: “Such a sunny day will raise Jill’s spirits."
4. To collect funds to finance a special undertaking: “Carl hopes to raise a large sum of money to contribute to the children’s charity."
5. To bring an animal or child to maturity: “There is a saying which indicates that it takes a village to raise a child."
6. To question or to bring forth a topic for discussion or debate: “Terry said he would raise the question of new prices for bus tickets at the next board meeting."
7. To cause the creation of a blister or sore: “If Marissa does not wear gloves when she rakes leaves, the friction will raise blisters on her hands."
8. To increase the bid or offer on something: “At the auction, the auctioneer attempted to raise the bids on the priceless piece of silver."
9. To increase or to cause the elevation of the level or baseline of something: “The heavy rains will raise the level of the river."
“The landlord told Etta that he was going to raise her rent significantly next year."
raise (RAYZ) (noun)
An increase in the amount of money paid for a task or undertaking: “With her new position, Andriana asked for a raise in her salary."
rays (RAYZ) (noun)
1. Any of a number of fish with flattened bodies and their eyes appearing on the flat upper surfaces: “Dennis could see a colony of rays drifting in the bay not far from his boat."
2. Beams of light: “The sun rays shined through the window illuminating the room and making it feel warm and comfortable."
3. Lines drawn from a common center: “Shelby depicted the sun by drawing several rays emanating from the round yellow circle in the corner of her picture."
raze (RAYZ) (verb)
To demolish, tear down, or to reduce something: “The bull dozers will raze the grove this afternoon to make way for new buildings."
“The carver used a small knife to raze the surface of the block of wood he was working on so he could make an ornament."
ramp 及 rant
ramp (RAMP) (noun)
1. An inclined surface or roadway connecting different levels: “She increased her speed as she entered the ramp leading onto the highway."
2. A mobile staircase by which passengers board and leave an aircraft: “The airline steward stood at the base of the ramp, assisting the passengers as they departed from the plane."
3. A concave bend of a handrail where a sharp change in level or direction occurs; such as, at a stair landing: “She held onto the ramp as she went down the stairs to make sure that she wouldn’t fall."
ramp (RAMP) (verb)
To increase or to cause something to increase in speed, size, etc.: “The work started slowly, but now the participants will ramp it up to full speed."
“The company will simply have to ramp up production in order to complete the orders."
rant (RANT) (verb)
To talk loudly and in a way that shows anger: “Mark, you can rant and rave all you want, but it’s not going to change anything."
rant (RANT) (noun)
An unreasonable complaint: “Just about every day, Trina had to listen to Jack’s rant about the evils of the auto industry."

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學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 Q 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter Q

誤解的字彙 Q 為開頭的字彙

quack (KWAK) (noun)
1. The voice characteristic of a water bird with short legs, webbed feet, and a large flat beak: “The quack of Trudy’s pet duck is the first sound she hears each morning."
2. An individual who pretends to be a medical doctor; someone whose medical practice is suspect or not authorized; a charlatan: “Mildred always joked that she was going to see her quack about her arthritis."
“That quack almost killed Marvin’s brother by prescribing the wrong medication."
quack (KWAK) (verb)
To make a noise in order to attract a specific wild bird to a location: “The hunter will quack like a duck to lure his prey to the marsh."
quake (KWAYK) (verb)
1. To shake or to quiver because of fear, anger, etc.: “Anita’s knees began to quake after she heard about the horrible accident on the highway."
2. To shake violently: “The explosion made the whole house quake."
quake (KWAYK) (noun)
An experience of shaking or trembling; for example, a severe earth tremor: “After the primary quake, the scientists reported there were several aftershocks felt in the earthquake zone."
quarry (KWOR ee, KWAHR ee) (noun)
The target or objective of a hunt or pursuit: “On Howard’s photography expedition, he looked for his quarry in the meadows and marshlands."
quarry (KWOR ee, KWAHR ee) (noun)
1. An open pit or excavation from which to cut and to remove stone typically for building purposes: “Trudy has an old rock quarry on her property which she uses as a swimming hole during the summer."
2. A diamond shaped piece of glass or tile: “Over the front door was a decorative pane of glass comprised of blue and red quarry."
quarts 及 quartz
quarts (KWARTS) (noun)
1. U.S. units of liquid measurements equal to two U.S. pints or 0.946 liters each: “Earl’s sister told him that she put three quarts of tomatoes in the freezer to use in the winter."
2. British units of liquid measurements equal to two British pints or 1.14 liters each: “The hostess served her guests two quarts of liquid refreshments."
quartz (KWARTS) (noun)
A mineral (silicon dioxide) that occurs in colorless, transparent, or tinted hexagonal crystals: “Sabina’s aunt collected a beautiful piece of pink quartz which she displayed on a shelf in the bookcase."
quiet 及 quite
quiet (KWIGH uht) (noun)
Freedom from noise: “Shanna enjoyed the quiet of the river flowing silently past the bridge."
quite (KWIGHT) (adverb)
1. To a very noticeable degree or extent: “Vincent goes out to eat quite frequently."
2. Wholly, completely, entirely, or truly: “Rodney’s statement about the weather is quite true."
“Tamika told the repairman that she was quite capable of fixing this part herself."

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學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 P 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter P

誤解的字彙 P 為開頭的字彙

paced 及 paste
paced (PAYST) (verb)
1. To have walked in a manner that is slow, measured, and deliberate: “When Beth was worried, she paced the floor in her living room."
2. To have measured a distance based on a careful walk: “Earl paced off the distance between the gate and the door of the barn."
paste (PAYST) (verb)
To stick something to a surface: “The children are going to paste the stars that they made on to the painted-blue background."
paste (PAYST) (noun)
1. A dough mixture that is made with a high level of fat and can be used to make pastries: “Latonya patted the paste into the deep baking dish and filled it with apple slices before baking it."
2. A mixture of flour and water that is used as glue: “Mother made the paste for Helena so she could work on her notebook."
3. Jewelery that is made from glass that has a high lead content: “The paste necklace was lustrous and looked almost real."
packed 及 pact
packed (PAKT) (adjective)
1. Compressed or filled to maximum capacity: “The packed theater was ready for the opening performance."
2. An indication that someone has finished putting things into bags, boxes, etc.: “Jesse and Jenifer were all packed and ready to move to their new apartment."
packed (PAKT) (verb)
1. To have created a compact bundle: “Curtis packed his suitcase last night for the trip tomorrow."
2. To have carried or to have worn: “Dale packed his pistol in the holster on his belt when he went target shooting."
3. To be capable of having a significant impact: “The hurricane packed a wallop when it came on land."
4. To leave without any expressions of farewell or good-bye: “After the quarrel with her father, Susana packed up and left without saying good-bye."
5. To have created layers which are compact: “The riverbank was packed into layers of sand, gravel, and clay."
pact (PAKT) (noun)
A formal agreement between two countries, people, or groups; especially, to help each other or to stop fighting: “The ten nations signed a pact agreeing not to pollute the rivers."
“The Senate supported a nonaggression pact between the two countries."
pail 及 pale
pail (PAYL) (noun)
A container that is open at the top and usually has a handle: “Please fill the pail with water and pour it on the rose bushes."
pale (PAYL) (adjective)
1. Light in color: “Marvin painted the walls with a pale blue color."
2. Having a skin color that is closer to white than is usual or normal: “When Bernhart came home from the hospital, his illness left him weak and pale."
paltry, petty 及 trivial
paltry (PAWL tree) (adjective)
Trivial, meager, measly, inferior: “The miser gave a paltry donation to the fund for hungry children."
“The quality of the paltry language used by Ernest made it difficult for his listeners to understand what he was trying to say."
petty (PET ee) (adjective)
1. Of secondary or of little or no importance: “Philip and Trudy often engaged in petty arguments that went nowhere."
2. Characterized as being narrow minded: “Bryan appeared to be a petty individual who was not interested in new music or challenging art."
trivial (TRIV ee uhl) (adjective)
Ordinary, not very important: “It was a day filled with trivial activities."
“Compared to the problems other countries are having, the trivial inconveniences we have are insignificant."
parameter 及 perimeter
parameter (puh RAM i tuhr) (noun)
A characteristic element or factor; a quantity or quality that gives a particular form to the thing it characterizes: “Ralph told the group that they will discuss the main parameter of the project at their next meeting."
perimeter (puh RIM i tuhr) (noun)
1. The outer limits, edge, or boundary of an area: “The perimeter of the pasture was marked with a fence."
2. A fortified strip or boundary usually protecting a military position: “The soldiers were defending the perimeter of their camp for several days."

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學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 O 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter O

誤解的字彙 O 為開頭的字彙

oaf 及 oath
oaf (OHF) (noun)
An insult indicating someone who is regarded as unintelligent, clumsy, or uncultured: “Oh, come on Dennis, quit making such blunders, you big oaf!"
oath (OHTH) (noun)
1. A solemn, formal declaration or promise to fulfill a pledge, often calling on God, a god, or a sacred object as witness: “They were required to take an oath of loyalty."
2. A formal and serious promise to tell the truth or to do something: “When he joined the military service, he took an oath to defend his nation."
3. An irreverent or blasphemous use of the name of God or something held sacred: “Trisha uttered an oath that was offensive and which was used to express anger and frustration."
oath 及 minced oath
oath (OHTH) (noun)
1. A commitment to tell the truth; especially, in a court of law: “To lie under oath is to become subject to prosecution for perjury."
2. A solemn promise, usually invoking a divine witness, regarding one’s future acts or behavior: “Jason took an oath of allegiance to his country."
3. A profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger: “Aurora was heard screaming an oath of damn it! after she hit her finger with the hammer."
minced oath (MINST ohth") (noun)
1. A type of euphemism based on a profanity that has been altered to reduce or to remove the disagreeable or objectionable characteristics of the original expression: “One example of a minced oath is to use “heck" for hell."
2. The use of a word or phrase to replace another one which is considered less offensive or less vulgar than the word or phrase it replaces: “Another example of a minced oath is to say “dang it" or “darn it" instead of damn it."
object (AHB jikt) (noun)
1. Something perceptible by one or more of the senses; especially, by vision or touch; a material thing: “Kenneth placed the object on the table after it fell off the shelf."
2. The purpose, aim, or goal of a specific action or effort: “It is Marina’s object to win this game for her family."
object (ahb JEKT) (verb)
1. To present a dissenting or opposing argument: “Lenora said, ‘I object to the fact that some people will have to pay more than others for the same service.’ "
2. To put forward in or as a reason for opposition; offer as criticism: “Many people object to the excessive violence and vulgarity on TV and in movies these days."
observance 及 observation
observance (uhb ZUR vuhns) (noun)
1. Paying close attention to something; such as, customs or rules: “As a driver, Mark is expected to maintain a close observance of posted speed limits."
2. A regular and accepted practice or rite: “The observance of the liturgical calendar was important to the members of the religious community."
observation (ahb" zuhr VAY shuhn) (noun)
1. The process of recognizing or noting information or a fact: “By close observation, Alisha will note the change in the weather."
2. A statement based on information: “Based on how dark the clouds are in the sky, it is Michael’s observation that there will be a storm very soon."
obstacle 及 impediment
obstacle (AHB stuh kuhl) (noun)
Something that stands in the way of achievement or progress: “The rainy weather is an obstacle to George’s camping trip."
“The course for the race was well planned with one major obstacle about half way through the course."
“Being short was never an obstacle to Jerry’s success as a singer."
impediment (im PED uh muhnt) (noun)
That which is a hindrance or a bar to the successful achievement of something: “Andrew’s sprained ankle should not be an impediment to his attending the ceremonies at school."
“Karin worked hard to overcome the impediment of a lisp in her speech."
official, official 及 officious
official (oh FISH uhl, uh FiSH uhl) (noun)
An individual who administers the rules for a game: “The official at the tennis tournament was a retired tennis pro."
official (oh FISH uhl, uh FiSH uhl) (adjective)
Authoritative or authorized: “The document had the official seal from the office of the President."
officious (oh FISH uhs, uh FISH uhs) (adjective)
Meddlesome or getting involved in an activity where one’s help is neither asked for nor wanted: “Lenora had a very officious manner, always trying to intrude herself into other people’s projects in the office."
omission 及 oversight
omission (oh MISH uhn) (noun)
Left undone or neglected: “The omission of the title page in Marina’s essay was quickly corrected."
oversight (OH vuhr sight") (noun)
1. Responsible care: “Andrew maintained oversight of the project from start to finish."
2. An accidental error: “The fact that Jose’s name was left off the list was a complete oversight."
opaque, translucent 及 transparent
opaque (oh PAYK) (adjective)
1. Difficult to understand: “Manfred’s oral instructions were opaque and Dennis had to ask for an explanation."
2. Not allowing light to pass through: “The windows were painted black so they would be opaque thus permitting the photographer to work in his photo-processing laboratory without unwanted light."
translucent (trans LOO suhnt, tranz LOO suhnt) (adjective)
Not completely clear or transparent, but clear enough to allow light to pass through: “The frosted glass in the door was translucent."
transparent (trans PAIR uhnt, trans PAHR uhnt) (adjective)
1. Allowing light to pass through: “The new window in the sunroom was transparent and let all the sunshine in."
2. Easy to notice or to understand; being obvious: “Trina’s facial expression was so transparent you always knew what she was thinking."

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