If you are not energetic and hardworking, you will never have any free time, since you will have to spend all your time finishing your work.

The same as: Idle folk have the least leisure.
“My grandfather always told me not to dawdle, since idle people have the least leisure."

Idle people have the least leisure





You should always tell the truth, even when it seems as if it would be useful to tell a lie.
Sarah: I borrowed Jane’s white blouse without asking her, and then I spilled tomato sauce on it. Should I tell her what happened, or should I just put the blouse back in her closet and hope she won’t notice?
Amy: Honesty is the best policy.
I think honesty is the best policy because being honest will give you mental peace. You don’t have to live with guilt because you lied. If you are always honest with people you don’t have to remember the lie you told them. The other person will always trust you. Being honest with someone shows character and shows that you trust them enough to let them know that you tell the truth and nothing but the truth. When someone feels you are honest with them they tend to trust you more and this builds a strong relationship. It also assures the other person that you are trustworthy. Dishonest people don’t get second chances when they lie because people are going to think they are always lying to them.






Begin a project when circumstances are the most favorable. Wait for a better opportunity of achieving success – and when it comes, act on it.
Wait until the economy has stabilized before trying to start your own business. Hoist your sail when the wind is fair.

Hoist your sail




論文翻譯之質化研究的研究問題 Thesis translation QUALITATIVE DATA QUESTIONS


針對不同種類的研究問題,研究者會利用各種不同的研究方法、資料來回答。許多研究方法的書都列了研究問題種類與研究方法的對照表,我下面列的是摘自 Yin (2009) 的 case study reserach (這本書有 kindle 版)。
MethodsForm of research questionRequires control of behavioral events?Focus on contemporary events?
Experiment   how, why?yesyes
Surveywho, what, where, how many, how much?noyes
Archival analysiswho, what, where, how many, how much?noyes/no
Historyhow, why?nono
Case studyhow, why?noyes
定義研究問題可說是作研究中最重要的一步,要了解到研究問題必須同時包含實質 (substance, 也就是你的研究是關於什麼的) 與形式 (forms, 像是 who, how, why, what, where 等)。
但具體的研究問題是什麼,很可惜 Yin (2009) 指出一個方向。沒關係,Miles and Huberman (1994) 這本質化資料分析的經典作 Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook,給出了一些可能考的方向。雖然這是重在質化研究,但我覺得量化研究在某種程度上也可以參考參考
Sample questionsGeneral form
Do children read better as a result of this program?
Do children read better in this program as compared with other program?
Does X cause Y?Does X cause more of Y than Z cause of Y?
What is the daily experience of the children participating in this program?
Are the remedial centers located in the areas of primary need?
What is X?Is X located where Y is lowest?
What do we mean by “special education children” and “remediation”?
Is this program receiving support from state and local officials for political rather than educational reasons?
What does “Y” mean?Why does S support X?
What are the characteristics of the best CAI materials being used?
How do the various minority groups view this program and judge its quality?
What makes W good?Does T value X?
What is the cost-effectiveness of the program compared with other programs?
How can we maximize the scheduling of classes at the centers with minimum expense?
Is X more cost-effective than Z?How are U maximized and V minimized simultaneously?
由於這部分英文還不難,但是不太好翻譯,所以我就原汁原味的呈現出來。另,網友告知 Miles and Huberman (1994) 這本書有中文版,書名為質性研究資料分析,有興趣的可以看看。
Reference Sources:
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

期刊論文中翻英翻譯服務︰論文翻譯     摘要翻譯     文章翻譯


英文自傳範例︰天文物理學 ASTROPHYSICS



As a child, I would often read books about space and astronomy and wonder what made it possible. This has developed into a much deeper, scientific interest in the subject. Studying Physics at GCSE and A-Level, along with Chemistry and Mathematics, has helped me further develop my interest. I have enjoyed doing my ISAs in these subjects, as these have allowed me to approach scientific problems in a practical way- a valuable skill for studying Science at undergraduate level. During my Physics A-Level, I enjoyed learning about nuclear and particle physics, and concepts of special relativity such as time dilation and length contraction. This is because these are things fundamental to our existence, the topics fascinate me and I have a natural aptitude for mathematics. My A-Levels have further developed these numeracy skills, which is useful in a Physics degree.
Not only do areas of stellar dynamics and galaxies interest me, but also cosmology and quantum mechanics, which are more challenging and help us to understand our universe. I keep up-to-date with astronomy news through the magazine “All About Space". Books such as “A Brief History of Time" and “The Cosmic Tourist" have inspired me to pursue studies in Astronomy. As a member of the Liverpool Astronomical Society I attend regular meetings, academic talks and astronomy nights at Pex Hill Observatory who keep me informed of astronomical events via emails and newsletters. Becoming a member of this society has been a fantastic opportunity for me, and it helps increase my understanding of all topics covered by physics and astronomy. I completed work experience in the Biology department of the University of Liverpool in July 2013. Here I was able to gain valuable lab experience and use scientific judgement in my work. I encountered research scientists and was able to consult them about what scientific research entailed. During Year 12, I acted as an assistant teacher in a Year 7 Chemistry class, which gave me experience of working in a Science classroom. Both of these placements allowed me to develop my problem-solving and teamwork skills. I have also completed voluntary and charity work for organisations such as Ykids and Macmillan, including organising a coffee morning to raise money for Macmillan.
During Year 12, I completed the Scholars Scheme at the University of Liverpool. As part of this I was mentored by a university academic and completed an academic essay titled “The Effects on Life on Earth of a Gamma Ray Burst". I passed this essay with fantastic marks and it also provided me with key skills involved in university essay writing, including referencing and how to avoid plagiarism. I have had 100% attendance and punctuality throughout my entire time in secondary school, which shows true commitment. As form captain one of my main duties was attending student council meetings, communicating the ideas of my peers to other members of the school. This allowed me to develop my communication skills, listen to the points of others and develop my own opinions.
I enjoy performing with the school orchestra and choirs, which allows me to work as part of a team and express myself creatively. I keep a good balance between my leisure activities and studies, allowing me to relax and not become too stressed. I also enjoy amateur astronomy. The first time I saw the planets and a deep-sky object (the Pleiades) will always be special to me. I would like my degree to lead to a career in Astrophysics research, as it would keep me abreast of new discoveries in Physics and Astronomy, and it would be a great opportunity for me. I may also consider doing a PGCE to become a Science teacher. I would like to do this as I would enjoy passing on my wisdom to future generations, especially girls, as I believe there should be more women in physics and engineering. The university that accepts me would be gaining a conscientious, hard-working student who is enthusiastic about her subject.


英文自傳範例︰物理學與數學 PHYSICS WITH MATH



The nobility of physics together with my aspiration to explore natural phenomena mathematically and to formulate theories that govern them has changed my perception of reality and this has made me ponder difficult questions. What is the history of the Universe? What is quantum entanglement? What is the string theory? I am intrigued by the implication of Quantum theory and the elegant significance of Relativity theory. For me, Physics is the key to the survival of the human race which makes me want to immerse myself in this discipline.
Physics requires the use of analytical techniques to construct magnificent theories that guide complex natural phenomena which also uncover hidden secrets of nature. This is reflected in the study of physical properties in four dimensions, where a gentle touch of mathematical techniques and fundamental physical laws allow me to prove equations defining special relativity which Einstein used to unlock the mass-energy equivalence. My desire to explore Nature’s true identity has led me to read the works of Stephen Hawking and Prof. Susskind. From these, I have realised how the Uncertainty Principle brings an element of unpredictability into science, which adds mysterious new dimensions to Physics. Interactions among Fermions and Baryons with the exchange of Bosons as well as the prediction of the existence of Higgs Boson intrigue me. These have helped to increase my knowledge regarding force and Schrodinger equation. My enthusiasm for mathematical physics has led me to formulate an equation that equates time-location. In the past I have designed a free energy generator, and a feasible past event viewer, which enabled me to understand the arrow of time in depth.
Combining the practical and analytical techniques I have gained from my A-level courses has given me a sound scientific background. I received the best young mathematician award which was given to me by my local government chairman. To solidify my mathematical ability, I have decided to take six units of Further Maths this year and I also study “Engineering Maths" by K.A Stroud which acts as an invaluable extension to my mathematical experience.
The beauty of physics, not just as a theoretical discipline but with its various applications, grabbed my attention after shadowing a Professor at the Missouri State University. He shared with me some of his elegant abstract ideas using clues from Nature. This encouraged me to look for abstract clues to make new discoveries. I have developed good communication and team working skills as an A-level science and maths tutor and through my contribution towards building an electric racing car for the Greenpower competition. My responsibilities include designing an effective drive system, while supervising other aspects of the project. I believe the skills I have gained have prepared me for university life.
In addition to studying for my A-levels, I am an official college advocate. I collate quantitative and qualitative data, analyse, and make presentations that highlight areas for improvement for the college management. Football and chess are among my favourite activities where I practise and develop my strategic skills. The works of Beethoven have motivated me to play the piano. I also enjoy dancing as well as imaginative drawing.
On completion of my degree, I plan to go into research and university lecturing. My passion for the application of physics from abstract and conceptual ideas, along with my attitude toward learning and researching into underlying theories of nature will enable me to achieve these goals. I believe I possess the essential skills, capacity and motivation to tackle the academic challenges that lie ahead.


英文自傳範例︰物理學 PHYSICS


Since infancy, I have been intrigued as to how anything I came into contact with worked; however, the explanations I received were always either too vague or beyond my knowledge at the time, I have came to realize that the keyword for all my questions was physics, where the most complex phenomena of the universe can be explained by fitting small pieces of the puzzle into a structured theory. My passion for mathematics is another factor in my choice of physics as a degree subject. I find complex problems in both physics and mathematics very challenging, and this enables me to embrace physics as more than simply a major or a degree, but as a personal passionate.
Due to my school’s offer of Core mathematics only in the AS and A2 level I am not able to study further pure maths in school, and therefore I’m self studying it at home. This would allow me to grasp the mathematical concepts in topics like the standard model which inspire me and motivate me to work harder; hence I approach the difficult most challenging questions with enthusiasm and an open mind.
I participated in extra activities where I did practicals like measuring radioactivity, & power generation. Additionally I have taught extra classes for weaker students, helping them to achieve higher grades, and I have being elected as a prefect at school.
In summer 2008 I managed to seize the opportunity of shadowing a radiologist in the radiology department at the International Medical Centre, I was also given the opportunity to observe the planning and modelling stages of a new building where I attended the construction site. Watching the application of the laws of physics being carried out before my eyes was fantastic and an extra motivator for me.
Beyond scholastic matters, I’m interested in activities that require thinking, such as computer programming, website designing, and scientific researching. I also enjoy reading, solving complicated questions, helping people, and “tamseer", the art of wearing an Omani turban plus playing table tennis and swimming.
I am preparing myself to do my AS exams in the January session 2009 and the A2 exams in the May/June session. I am very optimistic to achieve the high grades expected for me by my teachers.I also managed to represent the Sultanate in an international youth convention at the Seychelles. I was the head delegate. Moreover I have handled the Coordination of many charity gatherings. I am as well the MISMUN coordinator and Head delegate of the 2009 MUN delegation team.
In 2006, I was awarded the “International Student Award for the Middle East region" by the Council of International Schools, and during my scholastic years, I have been awarded the Certificate of Academic Superiority, Certificate of Merit with distinction and Principal’s Honour Roll with High Distinction almost every year.
I intend to continue with my post-graduation studies for the future, in the fields of either Nuclear or quantum physics, and then continue to get a PhD. Thus I will be able to benefit other students at universities by being a lecturer to earn a living, in addition to conducting my own research in my field of physics in the same university or research centre to achieve my ultimate goal of doing something major in the world.





找樣本的方式:作者整理了 Krzel (1992) 、 Patton (1990) 與其它人的研究,列成一張表格。我限於版面不太好輸入表格,就羅列於下。前面是取樣方法,後面是目的及特色。
  • Maximum variation 最大化差異:紀錄不同差異並尋找重要的重複類型 documents diverse variations and identifies important common patterns
  • Homogeneous 同質化:聚焦,減少,少化,並輔助團體訪談
  • Critical case 關鍵個案:允許邏輯上的普遍化並最大化這些資訊到其它個案
  • Theory based 理論依據:尋找理論相關的例子、解釋並闡述
  • Confirming and disconfirming cases 證明或駁斥個案:闡述一開始的分析,尋找例外,並尋求變化
  • Snowball or chain 雪球法:從知道有可能知道哪些個案會提供大量資訊的人來尋找
  • Extreme or deviant case 極端個案:從極端不尋常的現象來學習
  • Typical case 典型個案:強調什麼是正常的或平均。
  • Intensity 強度:資訊豐富的個案可強力表明某個現象,但並非極端的 (information-rich cases that manifest the phenomenon intensely, but not extremely)
  • Politically important cases 重要的個案:吸引注意或避免不需要的注意
  • Random purposeful 有目的隨機:增加可信度
  • Stratified purposeful 有目的分層:突顯次群體;方便比較
  • Criterion 標準:所有的參與者都符合標準;對確保品質有用
  • Opportunistic 機會:根隨新發現 (following new leads,這句我不太會翻);利用不可預期
  • Combination or mixed 多種及混合:三角檢測 (triangulation)、靈活性,符合多種興趣與需要
  • Convenience 方便取樣:省時間、金錢、精力,但可能缺乏可信度 (credibility)
Why we do qualitative data analysis?
1. Looks further than precise numerical evidence
2. Looks for categories such as events, descriptions, comments, behaviour
3. An inductive process – developing theories from the data you have gathered
4. Coding of categories and sub-categories identified
5. Compares codes, looking for consistencies, differences, patterns etc
6. Looks for new and emerging categories.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

期刊論文中翻英翻譯服務︰論文翻譯     摘要翻譯     文章翻譯





The same kinds of events seem to happen over and over.
If we consider “repeat” as both a metaphor and in terms of its connotation, we can understand what people mean by “history repeats itself,” and it actually emerges as a useful conceptual tool. As Mark Twain put it, “History does not repeat itself, but it does rhyme.”
The vast, vast majority of people don’t in anyway think that history literally, exactly repeats itself. Such would violate celebrated philosophies of free will. When people say that history repeats itself, they are generally thinking of broad patterns. Another way to describe these patterns or relationships would be to describe them as cause and effect relationships. They are thinking about the existence of and continuation of
 War, Poverty, Colonialism, Racism, Sexism, Classism, or Social movements, to list only a few of the repeated/unending phenomena of human history. 
Bob: The country is headed for an economic depression.
Sarah: How do you know?
Bob: History repeats itself. The conditions now are just like the conditions before the last major depression.
History repeats itself